FROM PALEOLITHIC TO THE IRON AGE
Prehistory lasted an ample period of time, that goes from the first signs of human settlement ( hundreds of thousands of years ago ) and the arrival of the Roman armies ( on the 3rd century BCE, Before the Common Era).
How do we know this past? Through Archaeology we can recover some pieces of information, through the study of the material remains: Settlements, burials, tools, personal ornaments. Once we get closer in time, written sources complete this archaeological view, most of all for "historic" eras: The Roman period, the Middle Ages, the Modern Age and the contemporary period.
In Alcalá of Guadaíra, human presence dates back from 80,000 years ago, and has been developed ever since in a discontinuous way. Until the Chalcolithic Period (3rd millennium BCE) the settlement does not become permanent; among these first settlements, we highlight Gandul's one.
Palaeolithic is the oldest period of human race History in our region. At the Iberian Peninsula the first human species are the Homo erectus and the Homo antecessor, discovered in Atapuerca.
During Neolithic the Farming or "Neolithic Revolution" occurred, allowing the beginning of plants cultivation and a higher stability of human settlements takes place. At Alcalá's area, the first agricultural settlements take place ca. early Chalcolithic Period (3rd millennium BCE), being the first examples of complex societies evolving in Los Alcores area.
During the first millennium BCE the agricultural societies of Late Prehistory come into contact with merchants and immigrants from Eastern Mediterranean. At Los Alcores, the presence of Phoenicians and the commerce of agricultural produces allow the evolution of a hierarchized society integrated in the Tartessian world of Lower Guadalquivir.